updated 02:36 pm EDT, Fri May 9, 2014
Users must currently toggle feature on manually
The latest build of Chrome Canary -- the experimental version of Google Chrome -- incorporates an option for Mac users to open files in Chrome apps. The association must be toggled manually by enabling the string "chrome://flags/#enable-apps-file-associations". Once on, though, Chrome apps are included within the "Open With" menu after right-clicking on a file in Finder.
Google says it plans to add the same integration to Windows and Linux, but has run into problems. Windows, currently, is sometimes failing to distinguish between apps and general instances of Chrome.
Chrome Canary is updated on an almost daily basis. The drawback is that it can sometimes carry significant bugs, including ones that will break the browser entirely. Google notes, though, that Canary can be installed separately from other editions of Chrome.